Important Tips for Goat Farming

I. Benefits of Goat Farming In India 

There are some benefits of domestic or commercial goat farming. If you want to start goat farming business then you must read the benefits of raising goats.
  • Goats are multi-purpose animals which can produce milk, meat, fiber, skin together.
  • Compared to cow and other livestock farming, goat farming requires less space and additional facilities. They have a less demand of housing and other management. In small scale production they are also able to share their homes with their owners and his/her other livestock.
  • Production costs like infrastructure, feeding and treatment are less.
  • You don’t have to think about marketing your farm products. Because there are already an established market in the country for marketing your products.
  • It is really very easy to maintain a goat farm compared to other farm animals.
  • Goats can adopt themselves with almost all types of agro-climatic conditions. And diseases are less in goats.
  • They are smaller in size but reach slaughter age faster.
  • Goat products like meat and milk has no religious taboo. And highly accepted for consumption throughout the world.

Goat Milk:- Doctors recommend goat milk for its health benefits & therapeutic values. Compared to cow or buffalo milk, goat milk is deemed far closer to mother’s milk in its chemical structure and digestibility. It also has better composition of proteins and useful amino acids, lending it anti-inflammatory and immunity boosting traits to guard against infections. Besides, can be milked any time of the day (ATM - any time milk), thus acquiring the well deserved epithet of “mobile milk vending machine” or “walking refrigerators”.

II. Select A Suitable Location/Site for Goat Farming

Almost all areas of India are very suitable for goat farming. You can select a land for goat farming near your home or select a land which has all types of facilities for successful goat farming business. While selecting land for starting goat farming business, consider the followings.
  • Select a suitable land that has a great source of fresh and clean water.
  • Suitable for grass, crop and other green plants production. These are used as goat feed to reduce supplementary feeding cost.
  • The selected land will not be too far from the market or town.
  • Ensure there is a suitable market near your selected area for purchasing necessary commodities and medicines.
  • Find out if there are any other goat farms located in your selected area.
  • A suitable market with high demands of goat products is available near the selected farm area.
  • Try to select land in village area. Because, lands and labors can easily be found within very cheap rate in village areas.
  • Ensure availability of all types of veterinary service in the area. If not available, stock all types of necessary vaccines and medicines in your farm.
  • Good transportation system so that you can easily sell your products and buy necessary commodities from nearest market or town.

III.    Housing of Goats

  • The houses should be semi-closed type & orientation should be East- West direction. Sloppy roof is best for the comfort of the goats.
    • Maximum length of shed = 100 ft. Width of the shed = 15-20 ft.
    • Central height=3 mtrs. , Side height= 2 mtrs. 
    • Height of North & South side walls=1 mtr.( 50% of side height)
  • There should be separate houses for keeping different category of goats such as -  (dry, pregnant, lactating, sick bucks & kids).
  • Shed premises should have sufficient plantation which protects the animals from direct wind & scorching sun during summer. At least 2 trees in each paddock should be planted.  
  • Shed Area:-
Type of goat           |  Floor space (Sq. mtrs)  |  No.of goats/ shed
Dry goat                      |  1.0-1.2        |  60-80
Buck                            |  1.5-2.0        |  Individual pen
Milch goat(stall size)   |  1.4x1.2                |  50-60
Kids (3-6 m.)               |  0.5-0.6                |  75-100*
Kids (6-12m)               |  0.8-1.0                |  60-80*
Open yard/paddock     |  1.5-2.0 times of floor space in shed.
* With 3-4 partition & 20-25 kids in each portion.
  • Feeding Mangers: made of concrete/bricks partition with GI pipe at a distance of 30 cms. are cheap & last long.
    • Outer dimensions: 8.2x0.8x0.3 m
    • Inner dimensions: 8.0x0.6x0.2 m
    • A manger of same dimensions is also required in each paddock.
  • Watering:  
    • For adult: - made of concrete/bricks. Size: Inner diam.: 4.80x0.90x0.37 m. 
    • For kids (3-6 m. old) : 3.60x0.75x0.30 m. Height of water tank from ground level should be 30 cm & 15 cm. respectively.
    • For kids (0-3 m. old) : plastic tubs of 8-10 litre capacity may be used

IV. Type of Feed and Fodder         

Goat is fastidious eater & likes browsing. Common feeds & fodders of goat are :-
  • Roughage
    • Tree/Bushes/Shrubs leaves, Neem, Peepal, Bargad, Golar, Jamun, Angir, Babul, Jharberi, Bhimal, Ber, Mulberry, anjan, Bamboo, Subabul, Karonda, Gokhuru etc.
    • Hays - Cowpea, Berseem, Oats.
    • Straws - Arhar, Gram, Wheat and Paddy.
    • Grasses - Dub, Anjana, Sawain, Zarga, Kankunwa etc.
    • Cultivated fodders & their hay/bhusa- Lobia, bereseem, Lucerne, oats,                          maize, bajra, para grass.
  • Concentrate 
    • Cheap & easily available feed ingredients shall be used for computing concentrate feed for goats. Babul Pods, Gram, Wheat Bran, GNC, Sesame Cake, Arhar Grain, Maize, owar, Bajra, Barley and Guar, Jungle Bean Pods. Mineral mixture 2% & Iodized common salt 1% shall be mixed.

V. Breeding Season 

Sr.No  |   Season    |   Season in Heat     |    Kidding Season   |    Remark
    a     |   Summer  |   March - April       |    Aug - Sept           |
    b     |   Rainy      |   June - July            |    Nov - Dec            |   Best
    c     |   Winter     |  Oct - Nov              |    Jan - Feb              |

a. Kidding=80-90%, b. Twinning=40%, c. Triplicate=10%, d. Single=50%

VI. Livestock Terminology for: Goat &Sheep

  • Buck -  an adult, male rabbit or goat
  • Doe - an adult, female rabbit or goat
  • Ewe - a mature female sheep  
  • Kid - a young goat
  • Kidding – a process of giving birth in goat
  • Lactation – milk yielding period
  • Lamb - a sheep less than one year in age
  • Lambing – a process of giving birth in sheep
  • Livestock - domestic farm animals kept for productive purposes (meat, milk, work, wool)
  • Market animal - livestock bred and produced for food consumption
  • Ram/Buck- An uncastrated male sheep
  • Wether - a castrated shortly after birth male sheep or goat

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